The kaaba is commonly known as the sacred cube or the sacred house. It is basically a cubicle building at the center of the mosque, Al Masjid al Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Al Masjid al Haram is the most sacred mosque of the Muslim. The place where this cube is situated is very holy for them. It is customary to face the kaaba during the prayers.
The sacred mosque, Al Masjid al Haram was build around the kaaba which was in a away protection from the outer impure world. This kaaba is made of granite from the nearby hills. The cube stands on 250cm long marble base which projects outward about 35cm. The flooring inside the kaaba is made of marble and limestone. This place is often said as the house of Allah.
It is also believed that this is the first ever house that was build by man to worship God. So according to the Quran, it was Abraham along with his son Ishmael who build this house. After the work on the kaaba was done, an angel bought them the black stone. It is believe that this stone is fallen from heaven on the nearby hill Abu Qubays. The stone was originally pure white, whiter than milk but then the sins by Adam and Eve made it turn impure and black. This is the only stone structure that was built by Abraham.
After Abraham placed the stone, he received a revelation that Allah said. And since then it is believed that this is the oldest mosque in the world. Since then the kaaba has been repaired and reconstructed. The kaaba was also damaged during the war. And in the later years, the kaaba was even bombarded with stones. But then later it was made into its original shape.
Also during the Hajj of 930 AD, the Qarmatians stole the black stone and ransomed it later. After heavy rainfall and flooding in the early 1600, the walls of kaaba collapsed, but in the same year, it was rebuilt again but this time with granite stones and marble and since then it has not changed.